Monday, June 27, 2016

Flip the "switch"

A history of legislation, the Republican party, and racism:

Republican party was founded in 1854 as the anti-slavery party.
Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866 as a pro-slavery, pro-segregation, and white power organization. (Coincidence?)
Founded in 1866, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) extended into almost every southern state by 1870 and became a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party’s Reconstruction-era policies aimed at establishing political and economic equality for blacks. - History Channel

The Dred Scott decision was in 1857. President-elect Buchanan (a Democrat) wrote to Supreme Court Justice John Catron (a Democrat) about settling the case before his inauguration. Chief Justice Taney (also a Democrat) delivered the Court's opinion that a slave could not be a citizen of the United States.

The Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1861.

President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863,
I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free. - The Emancipation Proclamation

The 13th Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified in 1865. Introduced by Republicans.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. - 13th Amendment

The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed by Republicans, vetoed by President Johnson (the Democrat vice-president to Republican Abraham Lincoln), and overridden by Congress.
All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other. - 42 U.S. Code § 1981

The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified in 1868. Introduced by Republicans.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. - 14th Amendment

The 15th Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified in 1870. Introduced by Republicans.

In 1871, President Grant (a Republican) signed into law the Enforcement Act of 1871, also known as the Ku Klux Act. - 42 U.S. Code § 1983

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was passed by Republicans and signed into law by President Grant (a Republican).
That all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal and enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude. -

The Supreme Court ruled on Plessy v. Fergusson, upholding "separate but equal" laws in 1896.

In 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded. Founder Ida B. Wells was Republican. Founder W.E.B. Du Bois was neither Democrat nor Republican, but did go on record against the Republicans because he believed they weren't doing enough to fight for blacks. Du Bois supported in 1916 Hughes (a Republican), in 1920 Harding (a Republican), and in 1924 La Follette (a Republican) for President. He corresponded with the Republican National Convention regarding supporting of Hoover (a Republican), whom Du Bois later rejected. Founder Henry Moscowitz served many years under John P. Mitchel, a New York City mayor (and Republican). Founder William English Walling was a Republican until 1917 when the Republicans opposed entering WWI.

The Supreme Court ruled on Brown v. Board of Education, overturning the previous Plessy v. Fergusson in 1954. Democrats attempted to thwart this ruling. President Eisenhower (a Republican) deployed the military to enforce desegregation in 1957.

In 1955, Rosa Parks became a beacon of the Civil Rights Movement, along with Martin Luther King, Jr. (a Republican).

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was passed. Strom Thurmond (a then Democrat) filibustered the bill for 24 hours and 18 minutes.

The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was passed.

President Kennedy (a Democrat) issued Executive Order 10925 in 1961, prohibiting discrimination in federal government hiring on the basis of race, religion or national origin and establishing The President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity , the EEOC.

The 24th Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified in 1964, preventing poll taxes from being used to discriminate.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. -

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed. It established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote. Strom Thurmond (then Democrat) opposed the bill. Robert Byrd (a Democrat from 1950 until his death in 2010) filibustered the bill for 14 hours and 13 minutes. Byrd was a former KKK member and Exalted Cyclops, who wrote a friendly letter to the Grand Wizard of the KKK in 1946. In his filibuster, he said, "Men are not created equal today, and they were not created equal in 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was written."

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed.

The Supreme Court ruled on Loving v. Virginia in 1967, ruling interracial marriage bans were unconstitutional.

Martin Luther King, Jr. (a Republican) was assassinated in 1968.

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 was passed.
It is the policy of the United States to provide, within constitutional limitations, for fair housing throughout the United States. -


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